Polarization-time coding for PDL mitigation in long-haul PolMux OFDM systems
In this paper, we present a numerical, theoretical and experimental study on the mitigation of Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) with Polarization-Time (PT) codes in long-haul coherent optical fiber transmissions using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). First, we review the scheme of a polarization-multiplexed (PolMux) optical transmission and the 2 × 2 MIMO model of the optical channel with PDL. Second, we introduce the Space-Time (ST) codes originally designed for wireless Rayleigh fading channels, and evaluate their performance, as PT codes, in mitigating PDL through numerical simulations. The obtained behaviors and coding gains are different from those observed on the wireless channel. In particular, the Silver code performs better than the Golden code and the coding gains offered by PT codes and forward-error-correction (FEC) codes aggregate. We investigate the numerical results through a theoretical analysis based on the computation of an upper bound of the error probability of the optical channel with PDL. The derived upper bound yields a design criterion for optimal PDL-mitigating codes. Furthermore, a transmission experiment of PDL-mitigation in a 1000km optical fiber link with inline PDL validates the numerical and theoretical findings. The results are shown in terms of Q-factor distributions. The mean Q-factor is improved with PT coding and the variance is also narrowed.
Optics Express ISSN:1094-4087article in peer-reviewed journal 2013-09-20